Dinesh Industries > Carbon Steel Pipe Fittings

Carbon steel pipe fittings manufacturer in India

Carbon Steel Pipe Fittings are made out of iron and carbon. They also contain manganese, silicon and copper in very low quantities as needed. As a result, carbon steel is high wear and tear resistance but is less corrosion resistant than the other stainless steel material types. Dinesh Industries is a leading Carbon Steel Pipe Fittings Manufacturer In India and we produce different types of pipe fittings in the carbon steel grades. There are buttweld, socket weld, welded neck fittings that are made through hot rolling, cold drawing or by forging. The materials could be polished and can have different finishes. The dimensions of the fittings vary according to the standards and the pipe nominal sizes as well.

Manufacturer of high yield & low temp carbon steel elbow, tee, reducer & cap in Mumbai, check CS buttweld fittings dimensions, weight and price list

Carbon Steel Pipe Fittings

Carbon Steel Pipe Fittings

SCH 40 Low Carbon Steel Elbow

SCH 40 Low Carbon Steel Elbow

CS Reducer

CS Reducer

High Yield CS Tee

High Yield CS Tee

Carbon Steel End Cap

Carbon Steel End Cap

E470 Steel Stub End

E470 Steel Stub End

Manufacturing carbon steel welded fittings in all schedule and sizes as per ASME B16.9, view CS pipe bend manufacturing method and low temp fittings temperature limit

Our Carbon Steel Buttweld Fittings and carbon steel 5d elbow are of high quality and are made up to the standard. There are tests that have to be carried out in order for the products to qualify the standards. We manufacture the fittings such as the Carbon Steel Elbow, Tee, Reducer and others for various application purposes. Buy Carbon Steel Weld Fittings from Manufacturer at factory Price. Some fittings are used for just connecting the pipes together; some are used for water tight connections and some with high wear and tear connections for high pressure and temperature applications. You can also get Low Carbon Steel Fittings from us. Please contact us for further information. We are Supplier of Carbon Steel Pipe Cap in more than 30 Countries.

Carbon Steel Pipe Fittings manufacturer in India
Carbon Steel Pipe Fittings Manufacturer In India

 

Supplied Carbon steel Pipe Fittings in sizes up to 24″ to ENI SPA in ITALY

We provide EN 10204 3.1 AS WELL AS 3.2 CERTIFICATION.
ALL TESTING ARE DONE IN NABL APPOVED LAB

Eni spa

Carbon steel pipe fittings specifications

Carbon Steel Pipe Fittings Manufacturer In India

Standard size range Schedule Carbon steel buttweld pipe fittings manufacturing technique
  • 1/2″ to 72″
  • Carbon steel seamless fittings up to 24”
  • Carbon steel welded fittings up to 72”
  • For large size please contact our sales team (India)
  • SCH 10
  • SCH 20
  • SCH 40
  • SCH 60
  • SCH 80
  • SCH 100
  • SCH 120
  • SCH 140
  • SCH 160
  • STD
  • XH
  • XXH
  •  Hot forming
ASTM & ASME (American standard) Dimensional standard for carbon steel buttweld fittings Ends of carbon steel buttweld fittings
  • ASTM A234
  • ASME SA 234
  • ASTM A403
  • ASME SA 403
  • ASTM A860
  • ASME SA 860
  • ANSI/ ASME B16.9
  • ANSI/ ASME B16.25
  • ANSI/ ASME B16.28
  • ANSI/ ASME B16.25 (welding bevels)
  • MSS-SP-43 (Type A/ Type B)
  • MSS-SP-83
  • MSS-SP-95 (Swage( Nipples or Bull Plugs
  • MSS SP-75 (high yield carbon steel fittings)
  • API 590-605
  • JIS B2313
  • JIS B2312

Dinesh Industries can produce carbon steel weld fittings as per the customer drawing, compare our price and shipping time with other carbon steel pipe fittings manufacturers in India

  • Bevelled
Types of carbon steel elbow Types of carbon steel tee Types of carbon steel reducer
  • Carbon steel long radius elbow
  • Carbon steel short radius elbow
  • 45 degree carbon steel elbow
  • 90 degree carbon steel elbow
  • 180 degree carbon steel elbow
  • Carbon Steel Equal Tee (Straight Tee)
  • Carbon Steel Reducing Tee (Unequal)
  • Concentric reducer
  • Eccentric reducer
Radius Types of carbon steel pipe bend bending radii
  • Long radius (45 & 90 degree)
  • Short radius (45 & 90 degree)

Contact Dinesh Industries for stock sizes

  • 1D bend
  • 3D bend
  • 4D bend
  • 5D bend
  • 8D bend
  • 10D bend
  • 180 degree long radius bend
  • 180 degree short radius bend
  • custom carbon steel bend
  • Small/ larger bending radius
  • R=1D
  • R=2D
  • R=3D
  • R=5D
  • R=6D
  • R=8D
  • R=10D
Other types of carbon steel welded fittings Bending technique of carbon steel bends Bending angle
  • CS cross
  • Carbon steel cap
  • CS Stub End
  • Hot Induction Bending
  • Ram-Type Bending
  • Roll Bending
  • Mandrel Bending
  • Rotary Draw Bending
  • 15°
  • 30°
  • 45°
  • 60°
  • 90°
  • 135°
  • 180°
Production method Carbon steel seamless pipe fittings bevel types Value added services at Dinesh Industries
  • Carbon steel seamless fittings
  • CS welded fittings
  • Fabricated
  • Plain Bevel
  • Compound Bevel
  • Hot dipped galvanized
  • Beveling
  • Saw cutting
  • Plasma cutting
  • Torch cutting
  • Welding
  • Grinding
  • Threading
  • Polishing
Our carbon steel pipe fittings meet the requirements of Carbon steel weld fittings testing reqirements Custom & special carbon steel pipe fittings manufacturer in India
  • MTC EN 10204 / 3.1B
  • Sour service
  • NACE MR0175
  • NACE MR0103
  • ISO 15156
  • NACE TM-0284
  • 100% Radiography Tested
  • Magnetic Particle Examination (For above Sch 80 CS fittings bevel ends)
  • Ultrasonic test
  • HIC tested
  • Positive Material Identification (PMI)
  • Y tee
  • Carbon Steel Lateral Tee
  • Carbon Steel Saddle
  • Hot Induction bend
  • Large diameter pipe fittings
  • Customized carbon steel buttweld elbow
  • Heavy wall carbon steel weld fittings
  • Long tangent
Carbon steel pipe fittings grades Low carbon steel fittings grades Grades of high yield weld fittings (ASTM A860)
Application wise Marking
  • Low temperature carbon steel fittings (LTCS fittings) Temperature limit: – 50°F (- 46°C)
  • High yield carbon steel pipe fittings Temperature limit: -50°F – 500°F
  • Manufacturer logo / name
  • Manufacturing date
  • Material grade
  • Sizes

Please note: Dinesh Industries also offer cstom marking

CS Fittings has a higher carbon content, which gives the steel a lower melting point, more durability and malleability, better heat distribution. We are biggest carbon steel pipe fittings manufacturers in india.

Different Types of Carbon Steel Weld Fittings

Black Carbon Steel Laterals

Black Carbon Steel Laterals

Carbon Steel Pipe Fittings

Carbon Steel Pipe Fittings

Steel High Carbon Reducing Tee

Steel High Carbon Reducing Tee

Galvanized Carbon Steel End Cap

Galvanized CS End Cap

High CS Return Bends

High CS Return Bends

Carbon Steel Equal Tee

Carbon Steel Equal Tee

Plain Carbon Steel Tee (Equal & Unequal)

Plain CS Tee (Equal & Unequal)

Carbon Steel Stubend (Long & Short)

Carbon Steel Stubend (Long & Short)

Fully Killed CS Pipe Reducer

Fully Killed CS Pipe Reducer

Quenching Carbon Steel CAP

Quenching Carbon Steel CAP

Carbon Steel Schedule 10 Fittings

Carbon Steel Schedule 10 Fittings

Low Carbon Steel Pipe Elbows

Low Carbon Steel Pipe Elbows

Quenching Low Carbon Steel Eccentric Reducer

Quenching Low Carbon Steel Eccentric Reducer

Carbon Steel Weld Eccentric Reducer

Carbon Steel Weld Eccentric Reducer

Low Temperature Carbon Steel Swagelok Fittings

Low Temperature Carbon Steel Swagelok Fittings

Carbon Steel Reducer (Con & Ecc)

Carbon Steel Reducer (Con & Ecc)

Carbon Steel Elbow ( 180o, 90o & 45o)

Carbon Steel Elbow ( 180o, 90o & 45o)

Quenching High Carbon Steel Grooved Fittings

Quenching High CS Grooved Fittings

Steel Grades Carbon Cross Tee

Steel Grades Carbon Cross Tee

Carbon Steel Schedule 80 Pipe Fittings

Carbon Steel Schedule 80 Pipe Fittings

Killed Carbon Steel threaded pipe Fittings

Killed Carbon Steel threaded pipe Fittings

Carbon Steel Weld Fittings

Carbon Steel Weld Fittings

Low Temp Carbon Steel Buttweld Pipe Fittings

Low Temp Carbon Steel Buttweld Pipe Fittings

Normalized Carbon Steel Bend (Long & Short)

Normalized Carbon Steel Bend (Long & Short)

Carbon steel Buttweld Fittings

Carbon steel Buttweld Fittings

Nace Mr0175 Carbon Steel Tubing Fittings

Nace Mr0175 Carbon Steel Tubing Fittings

Medium Carbon Steel 45 Degree Elbows

Medium Carbon Steel 45 Degree Elbows

Carbon Steel Seamless Pipe Fittings

Carbon Steel Seamless Pipe Fittings

CS Seamless Fittings

CS Seamless Fittings

Steel Low Carbon Stub Ends

Steel Low Carbon Stub Ends

Carbon Steel Concentric Reducer

Carbon Steel Concentric Reducer

Carbon Steel 90 Degree Elbows

Carbon Steel 90 Degree Elbows

Carbon Steel Cross fitting

Carbon Steel Cross fitting

Carbon Steel Grade Lap Joint Stub Ends

Carbon Steel Grade Lap Joint Stub Ends

Schedule 10 Carbon Steel Pipe Fittings

Schedule 10 Carbon Steel Pipe Fittings

Carbon Steel Forged Pipe Fittings

Carbon Steel Forged Pipe Fittings

ASME B16.9 Reducer, Concentric, Carbon Steel, WT Schedule 10, SCH 80 BW, Seamless

ASME B16.9 Reducer, Concentric, Carbon Steel, WT Schedule 10, SCH 80 BW, Seamless

ANSI B16.9 Pipe Tee, Reducing, CS, DN450, WT Schedule 10 Welded

ANSI B16.9 Pipe Tee, Reducing, CS, DN450, WT Schedule 10 Welded

ASME B16.9 Pipe Cap, Carbon Steel, WT Schedule 40, Seamless, DN450

ASME B16.9 Pipe Cap, Carbon Steel, WT Schedule 40, Seamless, DN450

22 inch 90degree LR Carbon Steel Elbow

22″ 90degree LR Carbon Steel Elbow

Carbon steel buttweld fittings price list

Carbon Steel Pipe Fittings Price Per Piece in India CS Buttweld Fittings Price in INR CS Seamless Fittings Price in USD CS BW Fittings Price in UAE Dirham
90 ELBOW CS B16.9 SMLS SIZE 16 SCH20 Per Kg 35 US $0.48 UAE Dirham 1.77
PIPE FITTINGS CS : DN 200, 90 DEGREE ELBOW (SR), SCH 40/STD Per Kg 77 US $1.06 UAE Dirham 3.90
CS SEAMLESS PIPE FITTING (ASTM A234 WPB CON. REDUCER B16.9 SMLS SIZE 10X6 SCH40) Per Kg 35 US $0.48 UAE Dirham 1.75
CARBON STEEL : DN 80, EQUAL TEE, SCH 40/STD Per Kg 119 US $1.64 UAE Dirham 6.03

Check our carbon steel elbow price in following countries

Export to Size Price Estimated delivery days from India
UAE 1/2″ US $ 0.412 5
South Africa 3/4″ US $ 0.455 25 – 30
Saudi Arabia 1″ US $ 0.672 7
Qatar 1-1/4″ US $ 0.823 7
USA 1-1/2″ US $ 1.127 40 to 60
Nigeria 2″ US $ 1.668 30
Germany 2-1/2″ US $ 3.293 20
Poland 3″ US $ 4.658 45
Finland 4″ US $ 9.100 45
Sweden 5″ US $ 14.517 45
Norway 6″ US $ 21.667 45
Kazakhstan 8″ US $ 40.083 45 to 60
Australia 10″ US $ 75.833 21
Bhutan 12″ US $ 107.250 7
Nepal 14″ US $ 138.667 7
Vietnam 16″ US $ 185.250 10
Cambodia 18″ US $ 226.417 9
Thailand 20″ US $ 270.833 7
Russia 24″ US $ 433.333 20

Download our latest carbon steel pipe fittings price list (PDF), 2023-24

Carbon Steel Buttweld Fitting Standard Specification

CS Buttweld (B/W) Fitting
Material
Size
Sch. & Swg.
Specification
CS Piping material
Carbon Steel
15 NB
to
500 NB
Sch. 40
to
Sch. XXs
A234 WPB B/W
Seamless
ANSI B16.9
CS Bend (Long & Short)
CS Elbow ( 180o, 90o & 45o)
CS Tee (Equal & Unequal)
CS Reducer (Con & Ecc)
CS CAP
CS Stubend (Long & Short)
CS Nipple (Barrel)
200 NB
to
600 NB
Sch. 10
to
Sch. 80s
A234 WPW B/W
Welded
ANSI B16.9
Low Temperature Carbon Steel
15 NB
to
300 NB
Sch. 5
to
Sch. 80s
A403 B/W
ANSI B16.9
200 NB
to
600 NB
Sch. 10
to
Sch. 80s
A420 WPL 6 B/W
Welded
ANSI B16.9

Searching for carbon steel pipe fittings manufacturers in India who provide custom marking? Contact Dinesh Industries to buy all types of carbon steel pipe elbow & buttweld cross fittings

Sizes Range & Schedules of Carbon Steel Weld Fittings

Sizes 1/2″ – 12″
Most famous types Fittings 90º Long Radius, 90º Short Radii, 45 degree Elbow, Concentric Reducers, Eccentric Reducers, Tees, Reducing Tees and Stub Ends Fittings
Schedule Sch 10S – Schedule 80S

Mechanical Characteristics Of Carbon Steel Pipe Fittings

Property
Values
Hardness
197 – 237 BHN (75 Ksi min)
Ultimate Tensile Strength *
95 min Ksi (655 Mpa)
Elongation *
17 % min
Reduction of Area *
35 % min
0.2 % Yield Strength *
75 min Ksi (517 Mpa)
Charpy Impact Toughness
42 mean/ 33 min J at –18o C

Chemical Element Of Carbon Steel Buttweld Fitting

Element
Weight %
Carbon
0.08 – 0.15
Nickel
0.5 max
Phosphorus
0.025 max *
Sulphur
0.025 max *
Molybdenum
0.90 – 1.10
Chromium
2.00 – 2.50
Silicon
0.15 – 0.50
Manganese
0.30 – 0.60

CS Pipe Elbow Degrees

Killed Carbon Steel 90 Degree Elbow

Killed Carbon Steel 90 Degree Elbow

BS 6323 Part 3 Steel 45 Degree Elbow

BS 6323 Part 3 Steel 45 Degree Elbow

Very High Carbon Steel 180 Degree Elbow

Very High Carbon Steel 180 Degree Elbow

E235 Steel Elbow 90deg. LR

E235 Steel Elbow 90deg. LR

Plain Carbon Steel Elbow 45deg. LR

Plain Carbon Steel Elbow 45deg. LR

BS 6323-3 Grade Hfs 5 Elbow 90deg. SR

BS 6323-3 Grade Hfs 5 Elbow 90deg. SR

Low Temp Carbon Steel Elbow 180deg. LR

Low Temp Carbon Steel Elbow 180deg. LR

E355 Steel Elbow 180deg. SR

E355 Steel Elbow 180deg. SR

Various Black Carbon Steel Elbow Types

E215 Steel Reducing Elbow

E215 Steel Reducing Elbow

E355 Steel Buttweld Elbow

E355 Steel Buttweld Elbow

Black Carbon Steel Return Bends

Black Carbon Steel Return Bends

EN 10297-1 Steel Miter Bend

EN 10297-1 Steel Miter Bend

E315 Steel welded elbows

E315 Steel welded elbows

E470 Steel LR Elbow

E470 Steel LR Elbow

E235 Material SR Elbow

E235 Material SR Elbow

Butt welded E275 Steel LR Seamless elbows

Butt welded E275 Steel LR Seamless elbows

sch 40 90 degree Q195 Low Carbon Steel seamless Pipe Elbows

sch 40 90 degree Q195 Low Carbon Steel seamless Pipe Elbows

SCH80 high pressure Material E235+N elbow

SCH80 high pressure Material E235+N elbow

EN 10305-4 ASME B16.9 SCH 40 elbow

EN 10305-4 ASME B16.9 SCH 40 elbow

Available Types Of Low Carbon Steel Bends

EN 10305-1 Steel 1D Pipe Bend

EN 10305-1 Steel 1D Pipe Bend

Low Temperature Carbon Steel 1.5D Pipe Bend

Low Temperature Carbon Steel 1.5D Pipe Bend

Q235b Carbon Steel 2D Pipe Bend

Q235b Carbon Steel 2D Pipe Bend

E235 Steel 3D Pipe Bend

E235 Steel 3D Pipe Bend

Black Steel 5D Pipe Bend

Black Steel 5D Pipe Bend

E315 Steel 10D Pipe Bend

E315 Steel 10D Pipe Bend

E470 Steel 180º Bends

E470 Steel 180º Bends

E235 Material long radius bend

E235 Material long radius bend

E275 Steel short radius bend

E275 Steel short radius bend

Q195 Low Carbon Steel Hot Induction Bend

Q195 Low Carbon Steel Hot Induction Bend

We are Manufacturer of Carbon Steel Elbow Sch 40 in strict inspection and compliance. Our Carbon Steel Stubend are visually inspected by our well trained employees.

Leading Stockist of Low Temp CS Weld Fittings

Carbon steel elbow material CS bw Fittings
Carbon steel Buttweld Fittings High Yield CS Weld Fittings
CS Seamless Fittings black iron pipe fitting
CS Schedule 10 Fittings Carbon Steep Tee
Carbon Steel Weld Fittings CS reducer
Carbon Steel Screwed Fittings CS swage nipples
CS Fittings Material Low temp cs branch outlet Fittings
CS Equal Tee Carbon Steel Threaded Fittings
CS Cross fitting cs grooved fittings
CS Stub Ends galvanized carbon steel fittings
CS Reducing Tee carbon steel hydraulic fittings
LTCS Cross Tee high yield CS fittings
Carbon Steel Lap Joint Stub Ends ibr CS pipe fittings
Carbon Steel Return Bends low temp CS fittings
CS Pipe Elbows low temperature CS fittings
CS 45 Degree Elbows normalized CS fittings
CS Elbow ( 180o, 90o & 45o) forged CS pipe fittings
Carbon Tee (Equal & Unequal) killed cs fittings
CS Reducer (Con & Ecc) low carbon steel fittings
CS CAP 3000 lb cs fittings
Carbon Stubend (Long & Short) CS victaulic fittings
CS Nipple (Barrel) cs reducer
large diameter CS pipe fittings CS fittings grade
Dinesh Industries is specialized in manufacturing carbon steel buttweld elbow in small/ large diameter, these CS elbows are available in 45, 90 & 180 degrees (Short & long radius)

Carbon Steel Pipe Fittings Weight Chart

CS Pipe Fittings

Carbon Steel Butt Weld Fittings Pressure Temperature Ratings (Standard)

Nominal Pipe Size Wall Thickness Sizes * ** Working Pressure– lbs per square inch at the
Fahrenheit Temperature Indicated
-20 to 650 700 750 *** 800
1 1/4 0.14 1065 1019 919 766
1 1/2 0.145 1005 960 867 723
2 0.154 900 861 777 648
1/2 0.109 1695 1621 1463 1220
3/4 0.113 1455 1392 1256 1046
1 0.133 1575 1506 1359 1134
2 1/2 0.203 1215 1162 1048 874
3 0.216 1095 1047 945 788
3 1/2 0.226 1020 975 880 734
4 0.237 975 932 841 702
14 0.375 570 545 492 410
16 0.375 495 473 427 356
8 0.322 765 731 660 550
10 0.365 720 688 621 518
12 0.375 630 602 543 453
18 0.375 450 430 388 354
20 0.375 405 387 349 291
5 0.258 885 846 764 637
36 0.375 220 198 178 148
42 0.375 189 181 163 136
48 0.375 165 158 143 118
6 0.28 840 803 725 604
24 0.375 330 315 284 237
30 0.375 265 254 229 190

* Nominal wall thickness; they correspond respectively to the thickness of EXTRA STRONG WALL GRADE B steel pipe.
** Ratings apply in accordance with Sections 1 and 5 of the Code for Pressure Pipe. The values shown are based upon a corrosion allowance of 0.05 inches for sizes 1″ and smaller. For sizes 1 1/4″ and larger, a corrosion allowance of 0.065 inches is used.
*** Upon prolonged exposure to temperaturer about 775 degree the carbide phase of carbon steel may be converted into graphite.

Pressure-Temperature Ratings on CS Butt Weld Fittings (Extra Strong)

Nominal Pipe Size Wall Thickness* ** ** Working Pressure– lbs per square inch at the Fahrenheit Temperature Indicated
-20 to 650 700 750 *** 800
1 0.179 2610 2496 2253 1879
20 0.5 570 545 492 410
24 0.5 465 444 401 334
18 0.5 630 602 543 453
42 0.5 269 258 232 193
48 0.5 235 226 203 169
30 0.5 377 362 326 270
36 0.5 314 301 272 225
3 0.3 1770 1693 1528 1274
3 1/2 0.318 1665 1592 1437 1198
4 0.337 1590 1521 1372 1144
5 0.375 1470 1406 1269 1058
1/2 0.147 3030 2898 2615 2181
3/4 0.154 2595 2482 2240 1868
6 0.432 1470 1406 1269 1058
8 0.5 1350 1291 1165 972
10 0.5 1065 1018 919 766
12 0.5 900 861 777 648
1 1/4 0.191 1935 1851 1670 1391
1 1/2 0.2 1815 1736 1566 1306
2 0.218 1665 1592 1437 1198
2 1/2 0.276 1935 1851 1670 1393
14 0.5 810 774 699 583
16 0.5 705 674 608 507

* Nominal wall thickness; they correspond respectively to the thickness of STANDARD WALL GRADE B steel pipe.
** Ratings apply in accordance with Sections 1 and 5 of the Code for Pressure Pipe. The values shown are based upon a corrosion allowance of 0.05 inches for sizes 1″ and smaller. For sizes 1 1/4″ and larger, a corrosion allowance of 0.065 inches is used.

Read about erosion-corrosion of low temperature carbon steel fittings and know the failure reasons of a carbon steel elbow

Uses of CS Pipe fittings

  • Transporting water and waste water underground
  • Transporting sewage
  • Steel scaffolding and building foundations
  • Transporting oil & gas
  • Boiler and condenser tubes, transport steam
  • High-pressure applications
  • Chemical processing

Carbon Steel reducer enables to be a change in pipe size to meet certain hydraulic flow requirements. We are Carbon Steel Cap Manufacturer in Wide range of sizes & materials

Manufacturer Standard Of Carbon Steel Fittings

  • A234 = ASTM A234 specification covers wrought carbon and alloy steel fittings of welded and seamless construction.
  • A420 = ASTM A420 Standard specification for piping fittings of alloy steel and wrought carbon steel for low-temperature service.

What is the function of a carbon steel elbow?

Carbon steel elbow are basically metal fittings that changes the directions of pipe products run flow internally.

Wherein this elbow fittings are welded and threaded to the pipe at angle of 90,45 and 180 degree usually.

This elbow is such in make which are in reliable performance to high pressure, temperature, vacuum and vibrations in manufacturing process.

AISI 1018 carbon steel elbow with large diameter and thin wall thickness helps to maintain fluent flowability and enhance low corrosiveness in pipe linkage areas.

CS elbow making according to standard chemical and mechanical composition helps in good time span anti-corrosive and erosional way running of pipe line in the plants.

What is erosion-corrosion of carbon steel buttweld pipe fittings? Common failure reasons of a carbon steel elbow

In oil and gas processing, erosion-corrosion of carbon steel buttweld pipe fittings are frequent phenomenon occurs due to tribo-corrosion material loss mechanism.

In such geo-thermal production facility, due to various corrosive elements like Hydrogen Sulphide[H2S], Carbon Dioxide [CO2], Ammonia [NH3], Chloride [Cl-] and Sulphate [S04 2-] this phenomenon occurs.

Frequent changes in flow direction and flow velocity causes significant corrosive behaviour in CS elbow and carbon steel pipe fittings areas.

Kind of Tribo-corrosion material loss mechanism causes by flow pattern change which damages internal surface of carbon steel buttweld elbows and pipe fittings.

Usually, during corrosive stage the tested parameter of Carbon steel elbow joints and pipe fittings varies causing progressive erosion-corrosion factors.

Ignorance of periodic testing of AISI 1018 carbon steel elbows and pipe fittings areas causes failure primarily.